Although a number of remote locations and villages still depend on rivers, streams and lakes for the supply of drinking water, town areas, suburbs and cities are harvesting underground water for daily consumption, through digging of wells and drilling of Boreholes. The government also provides boreholes at strategic places as part of the effort to ensure that million people have access to hygienic water. Wells and Boreholes are characterized with drilling issues such as underground rocks, labor and equipment cost, and so on. To get a satisfactory value on the cost of overcoming these and other barriers, water from these sources should be served at the best.
Well water is usually filtered by the layer of underground soil but even the best source may contain impurities like dissolved compounds micro-organisms, etc. The presence of such impurity is usually signified by foul taste, odor, or pigment from underground substances. Impurities are more in oil exploring places. In other parts, the water may appear colorless, odorless and even tasteless but such test cannot be used to determine the purity of well water. Wells should be dogged deep as much as possible, skillfully and properly lined with concrete rings, properly covered and situated away from sewage and toilets.
To be on the safe side, simple practices can be used for purifying well waters. Chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite are the common water treatment used by water treaters (persons) employed. Ozone is also good but its effect is does not last long. The aim of using disinfectant is to kill any parasite, bacteria, and other water contaminants. Usually, wells are fortified with concrete rings. The common ones have a volume of 250 – 300 liters of water. For a filled ring of water, add 30 – 50 gram of sodium hypochlorite or 25 – 40 gram of chlorine. The ratio of chlorine solution to water volume is ideally 2:100. Upon addition of the disinfectant, the well should be closed for 48 hours, at least. This allows the chemical to completely dissolve and diffuse to the bottom. It also prevents likely reaction that may occur when such water is used immediately. After two days, the water is now fit for domestic use and consumption. Likely odor and taste clear off with time.
Boreholes boast purer supply than well water because the water is drawn from a deeper underground source. This deepness affords it the ability to provide water even when wells have dried up. Perhaps, the setback associated with water Boreholes is the cleanliness of the storage tanks. The storage tanks should also be disinfected every 60-120 days. Overhead tanks are flushed empty, disinfected using chlorine and then covered again.