As it stands, is an essential part of life. It constitutes more than half of our body weight and it’s a key material in the sustainability of life. It is an enormous natural resource although only a little percentage of it constitutes the fresh water. Only a little percentage of this freshwater is available for use in cities and for agricultural purposes while the remaining are in glacier form or far down the earth.

The underground pool of water which is best known as aquifers has been the major source of water today and the demand for freshwater has increased globally resulting from growth in population and economy, climate change, pollution, and several another challenging factor. This as a result has led to the depletion of these important aquifers thereby causing a widespread reduction in the level of groundwater. The available water in the world today is becoming reduced in quality, hence posing a great threat and risk to the health of the people and also the ecosystem. Too saddening that 780 million people in the world today have little or no access to fresh water while a great number of people are dying due to lack of it.

Major water problems we are facing today are as a result wasteful usage of water, poor water management systems, little or no investments, and inability to make use of present technologies

Climate Change

It is uncertain as to how the change in climate will affect the patterns of rainfall, however, the impacts and its change direction are very much recognized. Water is at the core of most natural disasters that happened in the lengthy droughts in California and also the floods that swayed South-East Asia in recent years. It is, however, pertinent that there be policies and investing decisions, mechanisms should be set up so as to help in avoiding such disastrous effects in the near future.

In Cities

Cities across the world transport 504 billion liters of fresh water over 27,000km to make water available for human consumption and industrial usage. From World Bank Data findings, it was discovered that Lima which is the second largest city built in a desert. The Colombian capital’s water supply in the future for its citizens is somewhat now dependent on how much there is sustainable management for high mountain wetlands in the Chingaza-Sumapaz-Guerrero passage. However, these wetlands are vulnerable to change in climate since they are far upstream. Therefore, it would be of great help and importance for authorities and agencies to take early action so as to preserve them and to adapt to the effects of global warming on water supplies.


As there has been a reduction in the underground water level, agriculture will be the major sector that would feel the strain and consequential effects of this development. Maintaining vegetation cover is a very much great countermeasure in preventing degradation of land and runoff of groundwater. However, the effects of agricultural practices have often led to the wide opening of lands causing deforestation. In some countries like Colombia, the GEF is making sure that cattle breeders and herders maintain the vegetation cover by allowing their livestock browse in the shade. Also, wetlands serve as natural buffers creating a protection over fresh water from pollution. Management of wetland basins by a Least Developed Countries Fund project will ensure that farmers get the best from these water sources thereby helping them withstand resulting effects from climate change.