Heavy metals are elements that have a density ranging between 3.5 g/cm3 to above 7 g/cm3. These heavy metals have a long half-life and they are non-biodegradable. Membrane filtration, chemical precipitation, adsorption, electro-coagulation, chelation, inverse osmosis and ion exchange are some of the methods to remove heavy metals from raw water. However, the preferred methodology for the removal of […]