Desalination of water is the process that involves the removal of salt from salt water thereby leading to the production of good water for consumption. Today, desalination is considered the affordable solution to resolve the issue of inadequate fresh water. During desalination, a large amount of energy is consumed to remove salts from salt water. Getting access to pure and drinkable water is a big problem in some part of the world today due to the growth of population and industrialization in those regions and also the little availability of pure water for consumption.
Positive Effects of Water Desalination
There are several benefits attached to desalination which makes it more demanding;
1. Food Productivity and Availability: Desalination increases water supply, during water shortage, water from desalination can be used agriculturally for food processing and plant growing.
2. Protection of the Ecosystem: The ecosystem is protected when there is a reduction in the direct consumption of fresh water from their main sources because consuming freshwater directly from its sources has effects on the survival of the organisms living in it. When the direct consumption of freshwater is reduced through desalination, the plants and animals in these habitats have a higher chance of surviving.
3. Water Conservation: Water conservation is one the wonderful benefits of salt water desalination as it helps in conserving fresh water. Salt water that is desalinized help in providing more fresh water for consumption and thereby increasing the percentage of fresh water in the society.
4. Energy Conservation: Water distribution requires large amount of energy for distribution and most water processing and recycling plants uses carbon fuels, desalination plants can make use of solar powers instead of carbon-based fuel because there is usually high level of sunlight in places suffering from drought which can serve as source of energy for desalination and thereby lead to the conservation of energy and the cost of providing them.
Negative Effects of Water Desalination
All of the below listed points do not apply to the MORA Water System technology.
1. Cost: The cost of desalinating salt water is very high compared to other ways of getting fresh water. Even considering the development of salt water desalination technology that leads to the reduction in the cost of salt water desalination, the cost of water desalination still keeps increasing which can be hard to afford in future.
2. Energy Consumption: Water desalination requires a large amount of energy, but with the help of solar energy, energy consumption cost can be reduced.
3. Waste Product (Brine): Brine is the waste product from water desalination, it is a large concentration of salt solution. Most desalination machines dispose brine into the water, therefore, leading to increasing concentration of salt in the water which can affect the organism in the water region before the concentration is balanced in the water. The high salt concentration reduces the percentage of oxygen in the water level thereby making it difficult for organisms to survive or even lead to their death.
4. Water Quality: Due to chemicals added to the water during pretreatment and treatment of the water, and some toxic substances released into the water which might remain in it, carrying out water quality test on the water will be very advisable before consuming it.